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Sabir Zaman
Kehkashan Arouj
Muhammad Muslim Khan


Objectives: To explore maladaptive schema modes among traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ‘non-traumatic brain injury
patients’ in the civilian population, particularly in cases of mild and moderate brain injury.
Materials and Methods: A total of 132 patients were studied, of which 96 had been diagnosed with TBI and 36 with
non-TBI. All were older than 18. The classification of mild and moderate TBI was determined by the neurosurgeon on
the basis of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), MRI, and CT Scan. Data was collected from Pakistan Institute of Medical
Sciences Islamabad Pakistan in the month of August and September 2018. A short Urdu version of the Schema Mode
Inventory (SMI) was used to establish the relationship between maladaptive schema modes, maladaptive coping style,
and adaptive modes among TBI and non-TBI patients.
Results: The results of the mild and moderate TBI patients indicated significant mean differences between the maladaptive
coping style and adaptive mode. Similarly, a significant mean difference was seen within the demographic
profiles (such as age, education, and occupation) of patients displaying maladaptive and adaptive schemas.
Conclusion: Mild brain injury patients recorded a higher score in the maladaptive coping style category as compared
to moderate injury. Patients with a higher score means less coping style. Further, no significant mean differences were
reported among TBI and non-TBI patients.

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How to Cite
Zaman, S., Arouj, K., & Khan, M. (2019). MALADAPTIVE SCHEMA MODES AMONG TRAUMATIC AND NON-TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY PATIENTS. Journal Of Medical Sciences, 27(4), 263-268. Retrieved from